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Layout tag: text

Create a text area on the interface.

A text is a text area (or text input) on the window. The user can write in it, except if the text is disabled, and controls allow to react if the text is modified, selected, and more.

<window title="Test">
  <text x=1 y=3>Enter something here</text>
  ...
</window>

Note: the text label (placed in the tag data) is mandatory. It is required for any text area to have a label. This requirement is a constraint placed on accessibility (no text area should be unlabelled, screen readers won’t be able to report it correctly otherwise). What you can do however is decide where this label will be situated in regard to the text area itself. See the tag attributes for details.

The text identifier (ID) is not mandatory. However, if not set, the text label will be used.

Attributes

Name Required Description Example
x Yes The widget’s horizontal position in columns (0 is left). This position is relative to the window width. <text x=5>
y Yes The widget’s vertical position in rows (0 is at the top). This position is relative to the window height. <text y=2>
width No The widget width, that is, the number of columns it will use in the window grid. A widget with a width of 2 will stretch one additional column to the right. A widget with x set to 2 and width set to 3 will span x=2, x=3, and x=4. The default is 1, so a widget will remain in its x column. <text width=2>
height No The widget height, that is, the number of rows it will use in the window grid. A widget with a height of 2 will stretch one additional row downward. A widget with y set to 2 and height set to 3 will span y=2, y=3, and y=4. The default is 1, so a widget will remain in its y row. <text height=2>
id No The text identifier (ID). If not set, the text label. <text id=name>
value No The default value of the text widget. <text value=Me>
multiline No If present, set the text on multiple lines. <text multiline>
read-only No If present, the text field will be read-only, forbiding the user to edit it. The text value will still be editable through code. Due to system constraints, this behavior cannot be altered, once set, a read-only text cannot be turned back into an editable one. Also note that screen readers will probably ignore a read-only text field and forbid to focus one, so make sure this field doesn’t contain vital information. <text read-only>

The required attributes are x, and y. It is recommended to also set an id although the shortened label (only lowercase letters will be used, spaces turned into the underscore) will be given if the id attribute is not set.

<text x=2 y=5>First namme:</text>

(This will set a text with id of “first_name”.)

The text label can contain a translatable field. In this case, giving the text an ID is recommended.

Data

A text tag will be turned into a Text object. You can access and modify its attributes in a control method.

Attribute Meaning and type Example
label The label (str) self.label = "Last name:"
value The content of this text (str) print(self.value)
enabled On or off (bool) Cannot be set. print(self.enabled)
disabled On or off (bool) Cannot be set. print(self.disabled)
cursor Cursor object. print(self.cursor.pos)

Use the value attribute to read or modify the text content:

class Example(Window):

    layout = mark('''
      <window title="Introduce yourself">
        <text x=2 y=0 id="first_name">Enter your first name:</text>
        <button x=0 y=4 name="OK" />
        <button x=2 y=4 name="Cancel" />
      </window>
    ''')

    def on_ok(self):
        first_name = self["first_name"].value
        # 'first_name' will be a str with unix-style line breaks

Note: value will get the content of the text area and make sure the line breaks inside this content are unix-liked (a simple \n, not \r\n or \r).

These attributes can be accessed and set using the standard Python syntax for attributes. Behind the scenes, these attributes are cached, handled by an extended property(), but you don’t really need to worry about how it works. Consider the following example:

class Example(Window):

    def on_click_ok(self, widget):
        '''The OK button was clicked.'''
        widget = this["first_name"] # admitting first_name is a text
        widget.label = "First name:"
        widget.value = "Vincent"

Changing the label will not change the text ID. Once set in layout, the ID won’t change.

A Text also offers the following methods:

Name Description
enable() Force the text to be enabled.
disable Force the text to be disabled.

For instance:

def on_init(self):
    '''The window initializes.'''
    text = window["first_name"]
    text.disable()

Note: the enabled and disabled properties, along with the enable() and disable() method, allow to change whether a text can be set by the user. A disabled text (usually grayed out or marked unavailable) cannot be changed by the user. However, some screen readers will skip over disabled text without even displaying it. Make sure to not place vital content in a disabled text.

Cursor object

The cursor object can be accessed through the cursor read-only attribute of the widget. A cursor object represents the point at which the cursor (or insertion point) is located. This object has additional attributes of its own and some methods (see below for examples).

Attribute Name and type Example
at_begin Yes or no (bool). Is true if the cursor stands at the beginning of the text widget pos == 0). if cursor.at_begin:
at_end Yes or no (bool). Is true if the cursor stands at the end of the text widget, that if typing new letters would append to the current text (pos == len(text)). if cursor.at_end:
col The current column number (int), starting from 0. With lineno, this helps to represent the cursor position as a 2D position in the text (number of lines from the top, number of columns from the left). This attribute is read-only (see the move method to move the cursor). col = cursor.col
lineno Current line number (int) starting from 0. This attribute is read-only, see the move method to change the cursor position. lineno = cursor.lineno
pos Current cursor position (int). This position is the one of the character index that will be “pushed” when the user types, so that pos is 0 if the cursor is at the beginning of the wdget, and len(text) if the cursor is at the very end of the text widget. This attribute is read-only, see the move method to change the cursor position. text.value[:cursor.pos]
text_after Text from the cursor position to the end of the widget, including both limits (str). It is identical to text[pos:]. If the cursor is under the ‘o’ of ‘coffee’, then cursor.text_after will return ‘offee’. cursor.text_after
text_before The text between the beginning of the widget and the current cursor position, not including the character under the cursor. This is identical to text[:pos]. If the cursor is under the ‘o’ of ‘coffee’, ‘cursor.text_before will return 'c'. | cursor.text_before`  

The cursor also has some methods:

Method Signature Description
move move(pos: int, col: Optionao[int] = None) Move the cursor. Either specify only one number as argument for an absolute movement (the given position is the index of the text in the widget), or two numbers (lineno and col) for a vertical movement taking into account the number of lines and columns.

Controls

Control Method Description
change on_change The text has been changed, either by the user or the program.
init on_init The text is ready to be displayed, but is not displayed yet.
press on_press The user pressed on a key of her keyboard while the text is focused. This control is triggered before the text is actually modified, and you can prevent the default change to the text.
release on_release The user relases a key on her keyboard. This control can have sub-controls.
type on_type The user types a character using her keyboard. This control can have sub-controls.
class MainWindow(Window):

    def on_init_first_name(self, widget):
        widget.value = "Vincent"